the formation of the Indian sub-continent is among the
oldest in the world, the Himalaya mountains are among
the youngest. A geologist can present conclusive proof
that the Himalaya were once at the bottom of the ocean.
Himalaya have attracted geologists, geographers, Trekkers
and lovers of nature. They have a strange fascination for
artists, poets, photographers and mystics. They are a paradise
for Trekkers and mountaineers and are the cradle of thousands
of rivers, streams and glaciers.
Himalaya extend over 2500 km in east-west and between 250
to 425 km in north- south direction. The most extraordinary
thing about Himalaya is the way they have been formed in
three parallel ranges known as Great Himalaya, the Lesser
or the Central Himalaya and the Outer or the Siwalik Himalayas.
Commencing at Nanga Parbat in the north-west, these reanges
pass through Pakistan, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh,
Garhwal, Kumaon, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh.
Of these the following form the part of Indian Himalays:-
JAMMU & KASHMIR-: Which includes Jammu, Valley of Kashmir, Leh and Zanskar
2) HIMACHAL PRADESH:- Which includes the valleys of Chamba, Kangra, Kullu, Pangi,
Lahul, Spiti, Kalpa and Shimla area.
3) GARHWAL AND KUMAON:- Which includes Nanda Devi, Gangotri and Yamunotri area.
5) ARUNACHAL PRADESH
Indian Himalaya can be divided into four zones parallel
to each other:-
The Siwalik Foothills- 5 to 50 km wide and their altitude rarely exceeds 1500 m.
This region is generally covered with damp forest.
2) The Lesser Himalayan Zone- 40 to 80 km wide and of an average altitude of about 3050
m. In the lower slopes are found magnificent forests of
chir, deodar, the blue pine, oak and magnolias, whereas
above 2450m are found birch, spruce, silver fir and other
3) The Great Himalaya- Comprising the zone of high snow-caped peaks which are about
150 or 160 km from the edge of the plains, this consists
of lower alpine zone up to 4875 m and an upper snow-bound
zone usually above 4575m to 5100 m. The alpine zone has
rhododendrons, thick shrubs with variety of beautiful flowers
4) The Trans-Himalayan Zone- About 40 km in width, encompassing the valleys of the rivers
rising behind the great Himalaya, these river basins are
at an altitude of 3600m to 4250m.
in the Indian Himalaya-
trekking expedition is as much a discovery of nature as
a discovery of ones self. It also provides a perfect
and balanced exercise for limbs, sheds excess body fat,
keeps you agile and leaves you fitter than ever before.
So pick up your rucksack and get going off the beaten track,
on to the Himalaya where the trail seems to disappear over
yonder ridge and leads somewhere
are essentially mountaineering activities but trekking is
more than just climbing. In climbing, team members have
just one aim, one goal in mind; getting to the top of a
chosen peak. All concentration is on the logistics and technicalities
of the approach march and the climbing; there is hardly
any time or mental aptitude to appreciate anything else.
is something complete and self- contained in itself. A trekker
does not have high ambitions to make or mar a trip. Each
days march is an achievement, each night spent in
a tent or a cave dwelling is a happy night; and the top
of every ridge unfolds endless vistas.
Trekking in the Himalayas does not require the sophisticated
equipment or preparations needed for a climbing expedition,
nor does it pose any particular danger or risk to life.
for a day or two ascending/descending a glacier, treks are
mostly on Ordinary Mountain paths. Walking on paths can
be strenuous, but not technically difficult and does not
require any special skill. Ordinary people in a physically
fit condition, and with normal hiking experience, can undertake
a trekking venture in the Himalaya, provided other matters
described below are taken care off.